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护理英语常见词根词缀

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1.人体主要器官前缀

名称 通用名前(后)缀 常用形容词 示例
heart cardiao- cardial cardium/carditis/cardiology
brain encepholo- cerebral cerebrum/encephalitis/encephalology
lung pulmo- pulmonary pulmontiis/pulmonectomy/pulmonology
liver hepato- hepatic hepatitis/hepatobiliary/hepatology
stomach gastro- gastric gastritis/gastrointestinal/gastrology
gallbladder chole- biliary holecystitis/cholinergic/cholecystectomy
intestine entero- intestinal enteritis/enterectomy/enterology
spleen splen- splenic splenitis/splenectomy/splenology
pancreas pancreato- pancreatic pancreatitis/pancreatectomy
kidney nephro- renal/nephric nephritis/nephropathy/nephrology

2.与人体系统、器官有关的前(后)缀

名称 通用名前(后)缀 示例
blood hemo-/hemato hematology/hemoglobin/hematoma
血管 vessel vaso- vasopressor/cardiovasology/verebrovascular
静脉 vein veno- venography/intravenous/venoconstriction
动脉 artery arterio- arteriology/arteriole/arteriosclerosis
muscle myo- mycology/myositis/myocarditis
marrow myel-/myelo- myelocyte/myelitis/myeloma
神经 nerve neur-/neyro- neurology/neuritis/neuron
细胞 cell cyto-/-cyte cytology/cytoma/leukocyte
尿 urine uro-/ur- urology/urosurgery/urogenital
body somato-/some somatology/somatopsychic/chromosome

3.与数字有关的前缀

数字 前缀示例
一(单) mono-/uni- monomer/monoclone/carbon monoxide/unidirectional
bi-/di- bilateral/biphasiccarbon dioxide/dipeptide
tri- trilateral/triphasic/trigeminal nerve
tetra- tetramer/tetracycline/tetraplegia
penta- pentagon/pentachromic/pentachloride
hexa- hexachromic/benzene hexachloride(666)/hexacycliccompiund
hepta- heptachromic/heptaploid/heptavalent
octa- octahedral/octal system
nona- nonapeptide/nonagon
deca- decade/decagram/decaliter
注:十位数的表示一般为:个位数前缀+deca,如:hexadecanol(十六烷醇),tetradecapeptide gastrin(十四肽胃泌素),octadecanoic acid(十八烷酸)

4.颜色及与颜色有关的前缀

颜色 通用名前缀 示例
color chrom-/chromo- chromosome/chromatin/chromatometer
red erythro- erythrocyte/erythrocyturia/erythrometer
white leuko- leukocyte/leukemia/leukocytuira
black melano- melena/melanoma/melanoderma
yellow xantho- xanthopsin/xanthosis/xanthoma
blue cyan-/cyano cyanosis/cyanopsia/cyanemia
violet/purple
绿 green
brown brown mixture/brown ring
orange Victoria orange/ethyl orange/orange G
粉红 pink oink frothy sputum
绯红 crimson
青铜 bronzed bronzed diabetes
注:有些病名的”“”“为同义,其前缀都为“cyano-”.

5.与疾病和疾患有关的前(后)缀(1)

含义 前(后)缀形容词 示例
patho- pathogen/pathology/pathogenesis
/-pathy -pathic neuropathy/nephropathy/adenopathy
病态 -osis -otic neurosis/tuberculosis/schistosomiasis
增多 leukocytosis/erythrocytopenia/granulocytosis
减少 -penia -penic leukocytopenia/erythrocytopenia/granulocytopenia
a-/an- atypical/anuria/agranulocytopenia
/ -let droplet/platelet/leaflet
micro- microscopy/microorganism/micronucleus
/ macro- macroscopic/macronucleus/macrophage
-megaly splenomegaly/acromegaly/hepatomegaly
复合/ poly- polyuria/polymer/polyopia
/ pan- pancolectomy/panmyelosis/pandemic

6.与疾病和疾患有关的前(后)缀(2)  

含义 前(后)缀示例
相反 dis- disease/disorder/disability
困难/障碍 dys- dysfunction/dyspepsia/dyspnea
不良 mal- malfunction/malnutrition/malpractice
炎症 -it is appendicitis/bronchitis/arthritis
/ -oma lymphoma/adenoma/hematoma
血症 -emia leukemia/septisemia/bacteremia
-algia/-algesia/alge-/algo- analgesia/hypoalgesia/algometer
麻痹 -plegia hemipleia/pamplegia/myoplegia
流出 -rrhea diarrhea/hypermenorrhea/rhinorrhea
坏死 -necrosis necro-/necr- hepatonecrosis/myonecrosis/necrospermia
结石 litho-/-lith lithiasis/lithogenesis/cholelithes

7.与方位有关的前缀

含义 通用词前缀 示例
upper/superior pi-/supra- epidemic/epithelium/supracostal
lower/inferior nfra-/sub- infracostal/subclavicular/subcutaneous
front/anterior/prior fore-/ante- forehead/anteroposterior/precirrhosis
/pre-
back/posterior post-/retro- posthepatic/postprandial/retrocardiac
inner/internal in-/endo-/ento- inhalation/endoscopy/entocranial
outer/external ex-/exo- extract/excretion/exocardial
between inter- intermuscular/intercostal/intercourse
/ on the side of para- parathyroid/paraprotein/pararenal
around peri- perioperative/pericarditis/peritoneum
中心 central centri-/centra- centrifugation/centralize/centronucleus
/centro-
/ opposite counter-/contra- counterpart/countershock/contraindication
注:in vivo/in’vaivou/活体内;in vitro/in vaitrou/活体外或试管内;in situ/in’saitju:/原位

8.与外科手术有关的前(后)缀

含义 前(后)缀示例
切除 -ectomy appendectomy/gastrectomy/splenectomy
切开 -tomy tracheotomy/hysterotomy/craniotomy
切(割) -tome tracheotome/thoracotome
吻合 -stomy duodenoenterostomy/gastroesophagostomy
成形术 -plasty tracheoplasty/osteoplasty/myoplasty
整(矫)形 ortho- orthopedics/orthopod/orthotherapy
造影 -graphy angiography/nephrography/phlebography
… trans- transdominal/translateral/transurethral
注:ortho-也是”“的前缀,如:ortho-acid(正酸)
-graphy
为方法,如:electrocardigraphy 心电图检查术;graph为仪器,如:electrocardigraph心电图机;gram为图象,文字,如:electrocardiogram心电图记录。

9.与化学品有关的前(后)缀

含义 前(后)缀示例
酸盐 ate sulfate/nitrate/acetate
-ol alcohol/propanol/taxol
-al retinal/methylal/propanal
-one acetone/progesterone/ketone
glyco- glycogenolysis
saccharo- saccharomyces
-saccharide polysaccharide
-ase reductase/transminase/kinase
-in penicillin/heparin/nuclein
-gen allogen/antigen/glycogen
苯基/ phen-/pheno- phenol/phenate/phenetidin
氨基 amino- aminobenzene/aminopherase/aminopyrine

10.与作用有关的前(后)缀

含义 前(后)缀示例
-cide/-cidal insecticide/pesticide/bactericidal
-stasis/-static bacteriostasis/virostatic/tuberculostatic
驱逐 -fuge febrifuge/centrifuge
-anti antibiotic/antimycotic/antimutagen
// de- dehydroprednisone/detergent/desensitization
// re- reabsorb/reactivation/recombinant
冷冻 cryo- cryobiology/cryopreservation/cryoprotectant
//分离 dis- disinfection/dissociate/dissection
向后/退行 retro- retrograde/retrosternal/retrocardiac